Across the centuries,each generation has interpreted Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519),finding him to be remarkably modern.At the 500th anniversary of his death (May 2,2019)我们可以考虑莱昂纳多在我们这个时代的意义。我们作为人类的本质在500年里没有改变,但我们的环境变化速度非常快,以及我们对他的成就和我们自己的看法。

THE NATURE OF GENIUS

列奥纳多是个天才,也是“普世人”的有力象征,因为他对艺术的兴趣广泛,科技、spanning disciplines from chemistry (he discovered acetone) to astronomy (he discovered the lumen cinereum of the moon) to math (he discovered the center of gravity of a pyramid) to working with plastics.

天才有多种形式,在莱昂纳多的案例中,我们认识到他的局限性。他为自己缺乏正规教育而自卫;he called himself "omo sanza lettere" (a man without letters).He had trouble with basic arithmetic operations,和他的拉丁语技能很弱。He surely would not have performed well in a modern school system,and his IQ might have been tested as low.(我认为他不可能或不应该被诊断出患有自闭症谱系障碍或注意力缺陷/多动障碍等任何疾病。)

Many people wonder if there could be a genius like Leonardo today,or what a person of his disposition would do.Perhaps there cannot be another like him because today's world requires tremendous specialization.Many of us are in fields that demand interdisciplinary thinking.但是很少有科学家,physicians,poets or politicians today are called geniuses.

统一的自然法则观

列奥纳多的科学是以18世纪的解释者塑造的亚里士多德世界为基础的。He developed a system of what he called the four powers of nature: movement,重量,force and percussion.尽管他努力定义这些概念,and many of the ideas are archaic,it is telling that he developed a coherent model for all natural phenomena ranging from the macrocosm (e.g.,geological forces that lead to the formation of rivers and oceans) to the microcosm (e.g.,人体解剖学)。

我相信他对四种力量的概念以及它们如何影响他的艺术和科学感到兴奋。We are on a similar kind of path today,seeking the grand unification of the laws of physics as we study natural phenomena from subatomic particles to the history of the universe.Few of us extend this attempt at unification to the arts as well.

VISUALIZED KNOWLEDGE

对列奥纳多,视觉是感官中最高贵的,最重要的,and his passion for vision was extreme.“眼睛是人体的窗户,通过它,灵魂可以欣赏世界的美丽。Because of it,the soul is content in its human prison,and without it this human prison is its torment" he writes in hisParagone(艺术比较)。他强调将知识形象化的方法,并开创了解剖插图的先河。

对列奥纳多,绘画是一门科学,而绘画的创造性行为对世界的形象化是有益的。As an anatomist and physiologist he decided at one point that the sense of vision is so important that it must be mediated by its own brain region,the "imprensiva."

看也有注意的意义,and Leonardo did this with exquisite patience.他会敲击一张满是灰尘的桌子,描述灰尘再次沉淀的模式。他反复解剖尸体,当他的观点与他的权威相抵触时,he was sometimes able to liberate himself and pioneer original discoveries.

对经验的信心

莱昂纳多最舒服的依赖于他的感官作为有意义的经验的基础。他总结了他对科学保证的态度。“在我看来,这些科学似乎是虚荣的,充满了错误,而这些错误并非来自经验,一切确定之母,firsthand experience which in its origins,或手段,或者结束了五种感觉中的一种。如果我们怀疑所有通过感官的事物的确定性,他在他的书中写道:“我们还应该怀疑多少与这些感觉相反的事情,比如上帝的存在,灵魂的存在,或者总是存在争议和争论的类似事物。”Treatise on Painting.对列奥纳多来说,这种对经验的信仰在很大程度上是直观的。In the 21st century we understand we cannot derive all knowledge from sensory experience,and many us studying genomes or otherwise using computers have encountered the limits of empiricism.面对当今世界,毫无疑问,莱昂纳多在可视化信息方面会非常出色。

跨学科科学

Leonardo's thinking was interdisciplinary.When he injected wax into the brain or into the heart to make casts of the inner workings of the body,he was borrowing the "lost wax" technique familiar to sculptors.当他研究摩擦时,发明了滚动轴承和滚珠轴承,他认为摩擦阻力根据接触表面的性质而不同,与负荷成正比增加,他甚至(第一次)估计了摩擦系数。但他进一步认识到它不仅与机器有关,而且与骨骼上肌腱的运动有关;心创造热量;通过声带上的空气摩擦产生声音。

CREATIVITY IN SCIENCE AND ART

创造力是以想象力为标志的生产力。Creativity is as basic to art as to science.We can be creative as teachers,作为学生,as writers and readers.We can appreciate the many facets of Leonardo's creativity,and it can inspire us today.

Leonardo combined science,art and engineering in a unique way.在他的时代科学主义“提及知识时”ARS" referred to manual proficiency.科学和人文科学的现代区别,betway88famously described by C.P.Snow,不像今天那样存在。莱昂纳多作为一个艺术家被很好地定位为承担科学家的使命。对列奥纳多来说,艺术家的创造力,noble purpose is to depict the natural world.The artist must understand the entire world as a scientist would.

实现人类潜能

今天,我们可以欣赏莱昂纳多所完成的一切,as well as his many failures,看到有人以独特的方式实现了他的潜力。He was appreciated as an extraordinary artist in his own lifetime,他的崇拜者们感觉到他对科学和工程领域的探索是异常的。他激励了一代又一代人500年,with our appreciation growing in the past century as we have been able to interpret his writings.

随着越来越多的信息和技术渠道塑造了当今世界,作为一个社会,我们可以反思莱昂纳多的创造力价值,curiosity,talent and knowing how to see.我们钦佩他的价值观,and we may wonder how they fit into contemporary society.I am not sure he would have thrived.我们也可以怀疑他的价值观如何帮助我们每个人努力实现自己的潜力;从这个角度来看,millions of us are inspired by his life's journey.